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Plumbing is the system of pipes and drains installed in a building for the distribution of potable drinking water and the removal of waterborne wastes, and the skilled trade of working with pipes,tubing and plumbing fixtures in such systems. A plumber is someone who installs or repairs pipingsystems, plumbing fixtures and equipment such as water heaters. The plumbing industry is a basic and substantial part of every developed economy due to the need for clean water, and proper collection and transport of wastes. The word “plumbing” comes from the Latin plumbum for lead, as pipes were once made from lead.
Plumbing is usually distinguished from water and sewage systems, in that a plumbing system serves one building, while water and sewage systems serve a group of buildings or a city.Plumbing fixtures are exchangeable devices that can be connected to a building’s plumbing system.
Plumbing was extremely rare until the growth of modern cities in the 19th centuries. At about the same time public health authorities began pressing for better waste disposal systems to be installed. Earlier, the waste disposal system merely consisted of collecting waste and dumping it on ground or into a river.
Today’s high efficiency boilers can save you a small fortune on your heating bills, particularly if your boiler is over ten years old. Modern boilers are smaller, neater and the latest technology allows for improved efficiency and flow rates.
SW London plumbing and Heating services only fit the leading brand of modern boilers, such as Ideal, Baxi, Vaillant and Worcester and as boiler replacement is one of our key services, we can offer our boiler replacement service at keen, value-for-money prices.
SW London plumbing and heating services are based in the City and South West, as the name of the company suggests and are capable of handling all types of central heating and plumbing jobs, irrespective of the size of the project.
Whether you have a leaky tap, your drains are blocked, you need a new boiler installed, you are considering fitting a complete central heating system or you need to find out why your radiator is hot at the top and cold at the bottom, as long as you are within the London area.
Most people agree that it uses less water to take a shower than a bath, although that is often not the case if you have a power shower. Even so, a shower does use a great deal of water and, as a large number of people shower every day, a water saving shower head could you save a lot of water and money! The term water saving shower head can actually mean a few different things but all the alternatives will save water.
An aerated water saving shower head will restrict the water flow therefore using less water during your shower. These are not suitable for electric showers, however, but are available from most DIY or plumbing stores. It would be worth discussing the options with the salesperson at your chosen store to ensure that you don’t end up with a very weak shower which would probably only result in you spending twice as long in there anyway!
Instead, a different type of water saving shower head simply reduces the flow rate, or, finally, the alternative to a water saving shower head such as these is to fit flow restrictor to the flexible hose of the shower head. These are suitable for showers with mains pressure and not electric showers.
Bear in mind that a conventional shower uses about 35 litres of water so reducing this by even, say, 10%, would save almost 1300 litres of water a year if you showered daily. By spending a relatively small amount on some form of water saving shower head you could make massive water savings, and reducing the length of time you spend in the shower will also make a real difference.
In large diameters or small, for liquid or gas, for high- or low-pressure systems under a wide range of temperatures, you can depend on copper and reduce costs for any mechanical system.
Standardize on copper for superior performance throughout the job. Copper is easy to work and has excellent thermal conductivity, corrosion resistance and durability. It is available in two basic types of tube—plumbing tube and air conditioning/refrigeration (ACR) tube, and in both drawn (hard) and annealed (soft) tempers. Copper tubing is also available in a wide range of diameters (from 1/8 inch to 12 inches) and wall thicknesses. Fittings to suit every design application are readily obtained.
Variety of Applications
In mechanical systems of all kinds, copper does more than ever before. Today copper tube has proven superior for:
- Underground water and gas services
- Water distribution systems
- Chilled water mains
- Drainage and vent systems
- Heating systems (including solar)
- Fuel-oil systems
- Oxygen systems
- Non-flammable medical-gas systems
Moreover, copper is durable enough to embed in concrete without worry.
Wide Range of Sizes
Large diameter or small, there is a copper tube to fit every specification. Forced-circulation hot water heating systems use small and economical tube sizes with soldered joints and require less space for installation. In drainage systems, Type DWV tube has been used successfully for many years. Large-diameter tube, joined by soldering or brazing, is cost-effective for water distribution and for fire-protection risers in multistory buildings. Copper’s superior hydraulic-flow characteristics permit precise tube and pump sizing.
It is good engineering practice to use one material for all components throughout a mechanical system. The more copper used in an installation, the more you can count on dependable performance. Copper is known for its reliability. It has been used for plumbing and mechanical systems since metals were first employed in these applications. And its popularity in heating systems is a further indication of copper’s superiority to alternative materials.
Long Lasting and Maintenance Free
Copper has stood the test of time to earn customer satisfaction and wide code acceptance. Copper, used for centuries, has gained new popularity in its modern form: light, strong, corrosion-resistant tube. Its long-lasting and maintenance-free characteristics make copper the leading choice for plumbing, heating, cooling and other mechanical systems. Copper never requires painting for protection from corrosion. In addition, a thin film forms inside the tube, providing natural protection from corrosion. Copper’s trouble-free service means satisfied customers. And its universal acceptability assures compliance with major building codes. Copper is safe, too. It will not burn or support combustion. So it will not carry fire through floors, walls and ceilings, and it will not decompose into toxic gases.
Copper’s excellent corrosion resistance is an important reason for its choice in so many applications. Solar energy systems, for example, benefit from copper’s resistance to both atmospheric and aqueous corrosion. For water distribution and fire sprinkler systems, copper tube’s internal corrosion resistance results in superior flow capacity. When calculating flow capacities, other plumbing materials require additional allowances for corrosion, scaling, out-of-roundness and smaller internal diameter when compared size-to-size with copper. Copper tube bores remain smooth, and internal diameters stay constant. Largely because of this, a copper fire sprinkler system can use smaller diameters to provide the same sprinkler coverage as a steel system—with significant savings in installed costs.
High Thermal Conductivity
Copper conducts heat up to eight times better than other metals. In any application involving heat transfer—from radiant heating to snow melting to direct exchange, geothermal pump systems—copper’s high thermal conductivity provides an advantage. Comparing copper, aluminum and steel, copper is by far the best conductor of heat. In solar energy systems, copper’s superior thermal conductivity means that thinner copper sheet can collect the same heat as a much thicker-gauge sheet of aluminum or steel. And it means that copper collector tubes can be more widely spaced.
Easy to Join and Install
Copper adds to system integrity while lowering installation costs. Copper’s workability can cut installation time and reduce labor cost. Tubes and fitting are easily joined metallurgically by soldering or brazing. And copper is so ductile that it can be formed—frequently right on the job site—to fit most design configurations. Because of copper’s formability, it is often possible to eliminate elbows and joints. Since copper is rigid as well as readily formable, it adds to total system integrity even when subjected to adverse conditions.
An Abundant Resource
The total of U.S. resources far exceeds the country’s requirements. At present use rates, we still have reserves waiting to be mined that are plentiful enough to last thousands of years. In addition, there’s another naturally occurring advantage that no other metal can match: ease of recycling. Almost half the copper used in this country comes from recycled scrap, which can be used over and over again. This copper recovered from scrap is as usable as primary copper refined from ore. Combining natural abundance with recycling, the USA will remain self-sufficient in copper for countless years to come.
NEW YORK (Dow Jones)–Copper futures rose Tuesday, bolstered by a weaker dollar and stronger U.S. economic data.
Copper for March delivery, the most-active contract, gained 6.10 cents, or 1.8%, to settle at $3.3695 a pound on the Comex division of the New York Mercantile Exchange.
December-delivery copper rallied 6.20 cents, or 1.9%, to settle at $3.3630 a pound.
Copper futures lurched higher after the latest report showed U.S. housing starts vaulted past expectations, rocketing up 9.3% in November to their highest level in 19 months.
The report was “encouraging” for copper prices, traders at Sucden Financial said in a note to clients. Copper is widely used in electrical wiring and water plumbing in residential construction.
A stronger euro, which breached the $1.31 level for the first time in a week, helped copper prices to maintain their upward momentum. Copper futures are denominated in dollars and can appear less expensive to investors who use other currencies when the U.S. currency eases.
Copper futures also drew strength from a report showing German business confidence improved in December, overturning expectations of a decline.
However, the longer-term outlook for copper is growing dark as an imminent slowdown in China’s demand for the industrial metal, which is set to coincide with a recession in Europe, will likely see copper prices slip below $3 a pound in early 2012, Bart Melek, head of commodity strategy at TD Securities, said in a note to clients.
“The slower global economy implies that world consumption will increase by less than 3.5% next year, compared to a 7.4% average in the last two years,” Melek said.
Copper settlements (ranges include electronic and pit trading): Dec $3.3630; up 6.20 cents; Range $3.3230-$3.3785 Mar $3.3695; up 6.10 cents; Range $3.2855-$3.3900
-By Tatyana Shumsky, Dow Jones Newswires; 212-416-3095; firstname.lastname@example.org
Günther Oettinger said new targets were needed for 2030, to enable businesses to plan ahead
New renewable energy targets to go beyond 2020 must be negotiated within the next two years, the Europe’s energy chief said on Thursday.
Günther Oettinger, the EU energy commissioner, said new targets were needed for 2030 to enable businesses to plan ahead, as the current targets to produce 20% of Europe’s energy from renewable sources run out in 2020. Oettinger was introducing a new EU energy roadmap to 2050, which showed that opting for a very high renewables component to the energy mix would be no more expensive than opting for alternative scenarios that placed more emphasis on nuclear power or coal and gas with carbon capture and storage.
He said that he expected binding renewable energy targets for 2030 to be in place by 2014: “With our roadmap we want to ensure that, for all participants, there should be an interesting discussion on binding targets for renewables by 2030. This should begin now and lead to a decision in two years’ time.”
It is the first time Oettinger has set out a clear timetrable for new targets. It follows an agreement reached at UN climate talks in Durban on Sundayby which all developed and developing countries agreed to negotiate an international agreement on emissions reductions “with legal force” that would be written and signed by the end of 2015 and would come into force from 2020.
By ensuring that Europe has its own post-2020 emissions and renewable targets decided in 2014, the EU will be in a better place to negotiate as a bloc and to meet the timetable set out in Durban. But the wrangling among member states over what the targets should be is likely to be fierce.
The UK is ahead of the rest in having set a “fourth carbon budget” for emissions reductions in the 2020s, under which plan emissions would be roughly halved by 2025 compared with 1990 levels. Even that has become less certain, however, as the chancellor, George Osborne, wants a review of the targets in 2014.
There is no agreement among other member states on what future targets should be, and several, such as Poland and other east European countries, want weaker targets while some Scandinavian countries want to be tough. Negotiating on targets was hard enough three years agowhen the EU’s 2020 targets were set. Reopening the discussions in the midst of the worst financial crisis and recession since the war, and with the eurozone looking precarious, will be triply difficult.
Oettinger has also supported weaker targets for 2020 than the climate commissioner, Connie Hedegaard.
Launching the 2050 energy roadmap, Oettinger said: “Only a new energy model will make our system secure, competitive and sustainable in the long-run. We now have a European framework for the necessary policy measures to be taken in order to secure the right investments.”
The roadmap puts the share of renewables in total energy use by 2050 at between 55% (in the lowest scenario) and 75% (in the highest scenario) – up to 97% in the share of electricity consumption.
Christian Kjaer, chief executive officer of the European Wind Energy Association (EWEA) in Brussels said: “The commission’s communication could have been clearer in its commitment to binding renewable energy targets for 2030. However, with his strong statement today, Oettinger has provided European industry and citizens with that clarity. The European parliament and council must now give the commission a clear mandate to come forward with ambitious binding 2030 targets for renewable energy.”
Greenpeace’s EU energy policy director, Frauke Thies, said: “The roadmap shows that getting clean energy from renewables will cost taxpayers no more than getting dirty and dangerous energy from coal or nuclear power. The commission will be tempted to overplay the role of coal and nuclear energy to appease the likes of Poland and France, but the numbers in the roadmap are unequivocal. It proves that a modern energy system can’t do without renewables and efficiency, but can easily consign coal and nuclear power to the past.
Copper futures closed down on Thursday, as data pointing toward slowing manufacturing growth put the growth-sensitive red metal under pressure. In the previous session, copper rallied the most in a month on strong US economic data and moves by central banks to increase global financial liquidity.
Poor Chinese manufacturing data trimmed some of the optimism spurred by a move by major central banks to aid distressed European lenders. Early Thursday, China released its official purchasing managers’ index for November, which fell to 49, down from October’s 50.4. A reading above 50 indicated economic growth, while a reading below 50 points to contraction. Copper for three-month delivery on theLME was down 1.3 percent to $7,772.50 a tonne. On the COMEX, copper for December delivery fell 4.1 cents, or 1.2 percent, to settle at $3.522 a pound.
Copper’s modest losses, on the back of a day of strong gains, suggest that the overall sentiment for the metal’s future is positive. Still, analysts have cautioned that they key for the future of copper is whether or not European leaders are able to agree to a plan to tackle the European debt crisis. The next crucial date is December 9, when theEuropean Union Summit is scheduled to take place. The European Central Bank signaled it was ready to take stronger action to fight Europe’s debt crisis if political leaders agree next week on much tighter budget controls in the 17-nation Eurozone.
Copper’s downside was also limited by upbeat data in the United States, the world’s largest economy. The US has churned out some promising economic data; most recently the US’s manufacturing data set a bullish tone. The pace of growth in the US manufacturing sector picked up in November at its strongest level since June, data showed earlier, while US constructions pending increased more than expected in October. Today, a global manufacturing report was released that showed that, unfortunately America is the only economy to be witnessing manufacturing growth. The data in Europe points toward recession-level manufacturing growth and indicates that China’s growth is cooling.
In light of the mixed economic data across the globe, the major investment houses have differing opinions on how copper will perform, in the near term. A year ago today an analysts were almost unanimously bullish over copper’s outlook. Today, commodities powerhouse Goldman Sachs (NYSE:GS) announced that it will maintain its “overweight” recommendation on commodities for the next 12 months, forecasting a 15 percent rally, as potential supply shortages in the physical markets could push markets higher. In a statement, Goldman stated “increasingly tighter physical markets driven by destocking and increasing supply disappointments leave many commodity markets extremely vulnerable to upside in the near to medium term.” Goldman’s competitors, including JP Morgan (NYSE:JPM) and Morgan Stanley (NYSE:MS) have a more bearish outlook for the commodities.
Newmont Mining (NYSE:NEM), the developers of the giant Conga gold and copper mine in northern Peru decided to suspended the project late Tuesday night, saying they were bowing to a demand from the government of President Ollanta Humala. Much of the northern district of Cajamarca has been paralyzed the last six days by general strikes called by people opposed to the development of the Conga project.
Violence in the region escalated Tuesday, as protesters burned an office at the site of the proposed mine and clashes between protesters and police in the area left 17 injured and two arrested. Newmont, has proposed investing $4.8 billion in the new project, which could produce between 580,000 and 680,000 ounces of gold a year and 155 million to 235 million pounds of copper for the first five years. The government had projected it would receive royalties and taxes totaling $800 million annually once the mine was fully operational after 2014. The project was initially approved by former President Alan Garcia and given the stamp of approval by Humala, who took office in July. There was some nervousness over the future of mining in Peru, once Humala was elected. Humala has been critiqued for having a ”left wing- anti-mining” politcal viewpoint. He is also good friends with the controversial leader of Venezuela, Hugo Chavez.